The Alliance of Small Island States and least developed countries, which are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, have called for losses and damages to be taken into account in a separate article of the Agreement, in order to recognize that the climate damage they suffer can overwhelm adaptation efforts. However, the United States preferred to address losses and damages in the adaptation chapter, perhaps concerned that a separate section would indicate that other climate financing provisions would be needed beyond current efforts to reduce and adjust emissions. As a result, confidence in the Paris Agreement will come from three main pillars: its legal nature, the effectiveness of the agreement and the participation of all countries. The legal form of the Paris Agreement and the planned contributions at the national level (INDC) remain unclear. A multilateral agreement, adopted under the Vienna Convention on Treaty Law, has the utmost international rigour. That is why a large majority of countries are calling for the Paris Agreement to be a protocol. If COP21 takes only a number of decisions, they will not have sufficient legal rigour to build the trust and security that must be created in Paris. An agreement or provision is not only binding in form. The Paris Agreement must impose commitments on the parties to achieve their greenhouse gas reduction targets and to achieve individual and collective goals. As the Bonn meetings resume, UN climate negotiations have entered the most important six months of climate diplomacy.

Momentum is growing on the adoption of a new climate agreement for tipping points in Paris in December. The Paris Agreement establishes a global framework to prevent dangerous climate change by limiting global warming to a level well below 2 degrees Celsius and by making efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. It also aims to strengthen countries` capacity to cope with the effects of climate change and to assist them in their efforts. It will also enable the contracting parties to gradually strengthen their contributions to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement. A radical shift in financial flows will be needed to steer the global economy towards clean energy and climate resilience. Efforts to build resilience to the effects of climate change in the weaker regions are particularly underfunded: according to a report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), only 16% of global financial flows were spent on adaptation to climate change in 2014.